© 2018 Pamela Martínez-Orellana et al. Activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been shown to play an important role in leishmaniosis by enhancing the parasite specific immune responses to control infection. However, the role of TLR agonists has not been studied in detail in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 agonists (TLR3a, TLR4a, and TLR7a) alone or in combination with Leishmania infantum antigen (LSA) on TNF-α and IL-6 production in blood from dogs living in endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Twenty-four healthy dogs from Catalonia (n=14) and Ibizan hound dogs from the island of Mallorca (n=10) were enrolled. Whole blood with TLR3a, TLR4a, and TLR7a alone or combined with LSA were cultured separately, and IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured by ELISA. A significant increase of TNF-α was found for all conditions studied compared to medium alone. Stimulation with TLR4a (p=0.0001) and TLR7a (p=0.005) presented a significantly marked increase in TNF-α and IL-6 production compared to TLR3a. Importantly, significantly higher TNF-α production was found in LSA+TLR4a (p=0.0001) stimulated blood and LSA+TLR7a (p=0.005) compared to LSA alone. All dogs showed higher TNF-α production after LSA+TLR7a compared to TLR7a (p=0.047) and LSA+TLR3a compared to TLR3a (p=0.052). These data indicate a marked inflammatory cytokine effect of TLR4a and TLR7a on blood from healthy dogs living in endemic areas of CanL. Additionally, LSA+TLR7a promoted a synergistic proinflammatory effect with TNF-α in all dogs. Those findings suggest an active role of TLRs in proinflammatory responses, which might be strongly involved in the process of disease resolution.
Martínez-Orellana, P., Montserrat-Sangrà, S., Quirola-Amores, P., González, N., & Solano-Gallego, L. (2018). Cytokine Effect of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 Agonists Alone or Associated with Leishmania infantum Antigen on Blood from Dogs. BioMed Research International, 2018, . https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5693736