© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. There is strong association between inflammatory processes and their main metabolic mediators, such as leptin, adiponectin secretion, and low/high-density lipoproteins, with the cancer risk and aggressive behavior of solid tumors. In this scenario, cancer cells (CCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) have important roles. These cellular populations, which come from differentiated cells and progenitor stem cells, have increased metabolic requirements when it comes to maintaining or expanding the tumors, and they serve as links to some inflammatory mediators. Although the molecular mechanisms that are involved in these associations remain unclear, the two following cellular pathways have been suggested: 1) the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) process, which permits the differentiation of adult stem cells throughout the acquisition of cell polarity and the adhesion to epithelia, as well to new cellular lineages (CSCs); and, 2) a reverse process, termed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where, in pathophysiological conditions (tissue injury, inflammatory process, and oxidative stress), the differentiated cells can acquire a multipotent stem cell-like phenotype. The molecular mechanisms that regulate both EMT and MET are complex and poorly understood. Especially, in the thyroid gland, little is known regarding MET/EMT and the role of CCs or CSCs, providing an exciting, new area of knowledge to be investigated. This article reviews the progress to date in research on the role of inflammatory mediators and metabolic reprogramming during the carcinogenesis process of the thyroid gland and the EMT pathways.
|Journal||International Journal of Molecular Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 2 May 2019|
- High-density lipoproteins
- Low-density lipoproteins
- Signaling pathways
- Thyroid carcinoma