COVID-19 and teacher education: a literature review of online teaching and learning practices

Carmen Carrillo*, Maria Assunção Flores

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

332 Citations (Scopus)


The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted education at all levels in various ways. Institutions and teacher educators had to quickly respond to an unexpected and ‘forced’ transition from face-to-face to remote teaching. They also had to create learning environments for student teachers doing their preparation in the light of the requirements of teacher education programmes and the conditions in which both universities and schools had to operate. This paper provides a review of the literature on online teaching and learning practices in teacher education. In total, 134 empirical studies were analysed. Online teaching and learning practices related to social, cognitive and teaching presence were identified. The findings highlighted the need for a comprehensive view of the pedagogy of online education that integrates technology to support teaching and learning. The implications of this study for the development of online teaching and learning practices are discussed. Suggestions for further research are also examined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)466-487
Number of pages22
JournalEuropean journal of teacher education
Issue number4
Early online date7 Aug 2020
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sept 2020


  • Covid-19
  • Online learning
  • online practices
  • teacher education


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