Conventional versus reduced-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematological malignancies

D. Valcárcel, Rodrigo Martino, A. Sureda, C. Canals, A. Altés, J. Briones, M. A. Sanz, R. Parody, M. Constans, S. L. Villela, S. Brunet, J. Sierra

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Abstract

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-compatible sibling donors is a potential curative treatment for hematological and non-hematological malignancies. Nevertheless, high mortality rates may be associated with this therapy, especially in older patients, those with other comorbidities or who receive a second HSCT. Patients and methods: We analyzed the factors associated with transplant-related mortality (TRM) and overall survival in 157 consecutive adult patients (104 males and 53 females) who received a HSCT [29 bone marrow (BM) transplantation and 128 peripheral blood (PB) transplantation] from a HLA-identical sibling between January 1995 and March 2002 in our institution. One hundred patients received a standard conditioning prior to HSCT (STAND) and 57 patients received a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) HSCT. Fifty-eight patients were in an early phase at transplant and 99 in a non-early phase. Median age was 46 yr (16-66), and 90 patients (57%) were > 45 yr of age. Results: Patients in the RIC group were older than those in the STAND group, and had a higher proportion of non-early disease phases including a prior autologous HSCT in 39%. Median follow-up for survivors was 28 and 15 months in the STAND and RIC groups (P < 0,001), respectively. Cumulative incidence of TRM at 2 yr was 30% [95% confidence interval (CI) 22-41%] for the STAND group and 22% (95% CI 13-37%) for the RIC group [non-significant (NS)]. Factors associated with a higher TRM in multivariate analysis were: STAND vs. RIC conditioning regimen [relative risk (RR) 5.4; 95% CI 2.3-12.8; P < 0.001]; age >45 yr vs. < 45 yr (RR 5; 95% CI 2.4-10.8, P < 0.001): second vs. first HSCT (RR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-6.3, P = 0.01) and non-T-cell-depleted vs. T-cell-depleted graft (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.8, P = 0.009). Overall survival (OS) at 2 yr was 52.5 ± 10.4% for STAND group and 59 ± 16.8% in RIC group. Factors associated with poorer OS in multivariate analysis were: STAND vs. RIC conditioning regimen (RR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-6.9, P = 0.001); age >45 vs < 45 yr (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5, P = 0.002) and diagnosis [other than chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) vs. CML] (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7 P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the introduction of RIC allogeneic HSCT for patients at high risk for TRM (advanced age, prior HSCT and non-T-cell depletion) leads to a reduction in the TRM and improvement in the OS.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)144-151
JournalEuropean Journal of Haematology
Volume74
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2005

Keywords

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens
  • Therapy-related mortality

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