Single and multiple mutants of extracellular Glu side chains of bacteriorhodopsin were analyzed by acid and calcium titration, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal difference spectrophotometry. Acid titration spectra show that the second group protonating with Asp85 is revealed in E204Q in the absence of C1- but is not observed in the triple mutant E9Q/E194Q/E204Q or in the quadruple mutant E9Q/E74Q/E194Q/E204Q. The results point to Glu9 as the second group protonating cooperatively with Asp 85. Comparison of the apparent pKa of Asp 85 protonation in water and in the deionized forms and results of calcium titration suggest that cat-ion-binding sites are of low affinity in the multiple Glu mutants. Like for deionized wild type bacteriorhodopsin, differential scanning calorimetry reveals a lack of the pretransition in the multiple mutants, whereas in E9Q it appears at lower temperature and with lower cooperativity. Additionally, at neutral pH the band at 630 nm arising from cation release upon temperature increase is absent for the multiple mutants. Based on these results, we propose the presence of two cation binding sites in the extracellular region of bacteriorhodopsin having as ligands Glu9, Glu194, Glu204, and water molecules.
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 2 Nov 2001|