Contemporary epidemiology and prognosis of health care-associated infective endocarditis

Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Benito Almirante, Pilar Tornos, Carles Pigrau, Antonia Sambola, Albert Igual, Albert Pahissa

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Abstract

Background. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of health care-associated infective endocarditis (HAIE) and to establish the risk factors for mortality. Methods. We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study. HAIE was defined according to the following conditions: (1) symptom onset >48 h after hospitalization or within 6 months after hospital discharge; or (2) ambulatory manipulations causing endocarditis. Results. Eighty-three episodes of HAIE (accounting for 28.4% of all cases of endocarditis) were diagnosed. Compared with patients with community-acquired endocarditis, patients with HAIE were older (median age ± standard deviation, years 65.3 ± 16.4 vs. 57.8 ± 17.0 years; P = .001), were in poorer health before disease onset (Charlson index, 2.5 ± 2.3 vs. 1.7 ± 2.1; P = .006), had more staphylococcal (55.4% vs. 28.3% of cases) and enterococcal infections (22.9% vs. 7.7% of cases; P > .005), underwent fewer surgeries (22.9% vs. 45.9% of cases; P < .005), and experienced a higher rate of in-hospital (45.8% vs. 22.0%) and 1-year mortality (59.5% vs. 29.6%; P < .005). In the HAIE cohort, independent predictors of in-hospital death were stroke (odds ratio [OR], 8.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-39.31; P = .004), congestive heart failure (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 1.77-17.03; P = .003), surgery indicated but not performed (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.22-11.45; P = .021), and enterococcal infection (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.78; P = .022). Independent predictors of 1-year mortality were surgery indicated but not performed (OR, 7.81; 95% CI, 2.06-29.67; P = .003), acute renal failure (OR, 7.18; 95% CI, 1.32-39.18; P = .023), and enterococcal infection (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.81; P = .026). For the series overall (292 episodes), HAIE was an independent predictor of in-hospital (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.34-5.98; P = .007) and 1-year mortality (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.25-5.39; P = .011). Conclusions. HAIE is an important health problem associated with considerable mortality. New strategies to prevent HAIE should be assessed. © 2008 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1287-1297
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume47
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2008

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