© 2019, The Author(s). Proteins and nucleic acids contained in extracellular vesicles (EVs) are considered a feasible source of putative biomarkers for physiological and pathological conditions. Within the nervous system, not only neurons but also other brain cells are able to produce EVs, which have been involved in their physiological processes and also in the development and course of several neurodegenerative diseases. Among these, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second cause of dementia worldwide, though most cases are missed or misdiagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) due to the important clinical and pathological overlap between both diseases. In an attempt to find reliable biomarkers for DLB diagnosis, our group characterized the proteome of plasma-derived EVs from DLB patients compared to aged-matched healthy controls (HCs) using two different proteomic LC-MS/MS approaches. Remarkably, we found that gelsolin and butyrylcholinesterase were differentially identified between DLB and HCs. Further validation of these results using conventional ELISA techniques, and including an additional group of AD patients, pointed to decreased levels of gelsolin in plasma-EVs from DLB compared to HCs and to AD samples. Thus, gelsolin may be considered a possible biomarker for the differentiation between DLB and AD.