A study was designed to compare an avidity index method to the serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion (STARHS) for the detection of recent HIV infection. One hundred sixty HIV-positive sera were tested. Both techniques performed similarly in identifying recent infections, although STARHS tended to misclassify more individuals that had long-standing infection as being recently infected. Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.