© 2018 The Authors Objectives: To analyse the risk of pneumonia and/or exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who receive treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (CI), in comparison with those who are not treated with inhaled corticosteroids (NCI). To estimate the risk of pneumonia according to CI dose. Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: Primary Healthcare. Institut Català de la Salut. Participants: Patients ≥ 45 years-old diagnosed with COPD between 2007 and 2009 in the Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP). Intervention: Two cohorts; patients initiating CI and patients initiating bronchodilators after COPD diagnosis. Main measurements: Demographics, smoking, medical history, pneumonias, exacerbations, vaccinations, and drug therapy. Results: A total of 3,837 patients were included, 58% in the CI and 42% in the NCI group. Higher incidence rates of pneumonia and exacerbations were detected in the CI group compared with the NCI (2.18 vs. 1.37). The risk of pneumonia and severe exacerbations was not significantly different between groups, HR; 1.17 (95% CI; 0.87-1.56) and 1.06 (95% CI; 0.87-1.31), respectively. Patients in the CI group had a higher risk of mild exacerbations, HR; 1.28 (95% CI; 1.10-1.50). Variables associated with a higher risk of pneumonia were age, diabetes, previous pneumonias and bronchitis, very severe COPD, treatment with low doses of β2-adrenergic or anticholinergic agents, and previous treatment with oral corticosteroids. Conclusions: There were no differences between cohorts in the risk of pneumonia and severe exacerbations. The risk of mild exacerbations was higher in the CI group. Pneumonias and severe exacerbations were more frequent in patients with severe COPD and in patients receiving high doses of CI.
- Inhaled corticosteroids