© 2017 American Association for Cancer Research. Purpose: Response to standard oncologic treatment is limited in colorectal cancer. The gene expression–based consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) provide a new paradigm for stratified treatment and drug repurposing; however, drug discovery is currently limited by the lack of translation of CMS to preclinical models. Experimental Design: We analyzed CMS in primary colorectal cancers, cell lines, and patient-derived xenografts (PDX). For classification of preclinical models, we developed an optimized classifier enriched for cancer cell–intrinsic gene expression signals, and performed high-throughput in vitro drug screening (n ¼ 459 drugs) to analyze subtype-specific drug sensitivities. Results: The distinct molecular and clinicopathologic characteristics of each CMS group were validated in a single-hospital series of 409 primary colorectal cancers. The new, cancer cell–adapted classifier was found to perform well in primary tumors, and applied to a panel of 148 cell lines and 32 PDXs, these colorectal cancer models were shown to recapitulate the biology of the CMS groups. Drug screening of 33 cell lines demonstrated subtype-dependent response profiles, confirming strong response to EGFR and HER2 inhibitors in the CMS2 epithelial/canonical group, and revealing strong sensitivity to HSP90 inhibitors in cells with the CMS1 microsatellite instability/immune and CMS4 mesenchymal phenotypes. This association was validated in vitro in additional CMS-predicted cell lines. Combination treatment with 5-fluorouracil and luminespib showed potential to alleviate chemoresistance in a CMS4 PDX model, an effect not seen in a chemosensitive CMS2 PDX model. Conclusions: We provide translation of CMS classification to preclinical models and uncover a potential for targeted treatment repurposing in the chemoresistant CMS4 group.