Cannabis derives from the hemp plant or Cannabis sativa. It has been used for more than 4000 years because of its psychoactive and therapeutic effects and its industrial uses. Cannabis sativa contains more than 400 compounds, 60 of which are known as cannabinoids. In the recent years an increasing knowledge of the molecular basis of cannabis's actions has been achieved, leading to the discovery of an endocannabinoid system. At the same time, several studies have been published regarding cannabis's pharmacological effects, adverse effects and therapeutic potential. Despite the high amount of information available, only few studies deal exclusively with the effects of cannabis in humans. The main purpose of this paper is to review the clinical pharmacology of cannabis. Epidemiological issues, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, pharmacological effects, adverse effects, endocannabinoid system, therapeutic uses and the future of cannabis and cannabinoids, are thoroughly discussed in this revision.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Dec 2005|
- Clinical pharmacology
- Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ -THC) 9
- Endocannabinoid system