Clinical course impacts early kinetics,magnitude, and amplitude of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies beyond 1 year after infection

E Pradenas, B Trinité, V Urrea, S Marfil, F Tarrés-Freixas, R Ortiz, C Rovirosa, J Rodon, J Vergara-Alert, J Segalés, V Guallar, A Valencia, J Blanco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


To understand the determinants of long-term immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the concurrent impact of vaccination and emerging variants, we follow a prospective cohort of 332 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) over more than a year after symptom onset. We evaluate plasma-neutralizing activity using HIV-based pseudoviruses expressing the spike of different SARS-CoV-2 variants and analyze them longitudinally using mixed-effects models. Long-term neutralizing activity is stable beyond 1 year after infection in mild/asymptomatic and hospitalized participants. However, longitudinal models suggest that hospitalized individuals generate both short- and long-lived memory B cells, while the responses of non-hospitalized individuals are dominated by long-lived B cells. In both groups, vaccination boosts responses to natural infection. Long-term (>300 days from infection) responses in unvaccinated participants show a reduced efficacy against beta, but not alpha nor delta, variants. Multivariate analysis identifies the severity of primary infection as an independent determinant of higher magnitude and lower relative cross-neutralization activity of long-term neutralizing responses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100523
Pages (from-to)100523
JournalCell reports. Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology
  • Antibodies, Viral/immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes/immunology
  • COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use
  • COVID-19/blood
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Memory
  • Kinetics
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2/immunology
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vaccination/methods
  • Young Adult
  • pseudovirus
  • variants of concern
  • neutralizing antibodies
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • humoral response
  • severity
  • durability
  • half-life
  • B cell memory


Dive into the research topics of 'Clinical course impacts early kinetics,magnitude, and amplitude of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies beyond 1 year after infection'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this