Circulating microparticles, lupus anticoagulant and recurrent miscarriages

Jaume Alijotas-Reig, Carles Palacio-Garcia, Miquel Vilardell-Tarres

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Pregnancy is a pro-inflammatory/hypercoagulable state. Impairment of trophoblastic invasion and placental microthrombi are involved mechanisms in the pathogenesis of recurrent miscarriages (RM). Although in RM related to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) non-thrombotic mechanism seems to play an important role as well, we focused this review on the thrombotic mechanisms of RM related to aPL. Thus, in cases of RM related to aPL, placental injury produces inflammatory changes in endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction has been shown by increased plasma levels of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and E-selectin. In RM associated with aPL, the thrombogenic mechanisms included different pathways: protein C inhibition, annexin-5 displacement, blocking of beta(2)GP1 anticoagulant activity and tissue factor upregulation. A new marker/causative agent of RM by itself or in relation to lupus anticoagulant (LA) has risen: circulating microparticles. Microparticles are a heterogeneous group of small, membrane-coated vesicles with a diameter of 0.1-1 microm. Microparticles are released from the cellular membrane during cell activation/apoptosis. Exposition of phospholipids in the outer membrane leaflet could explain the role of microparticles in the thrombotic events. Microparticles have been associated with RM. Microparticles are increased in women with RM when compared with healthy pregnant women. A relationship between aPL and activated endothelial cells (EC) occurs, as well as between EC and circulating microparticles. Interestingly, microparticles induced coagulation in vitro via tissue factor, especially in plasmas with LA. Finally, the relationship between EC, microparticles, LA and RM is revised.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-6
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2009


  • Abortion, Habitual/physiopathology
  • Cell-Derived Microparticles/physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/physiology
  • Phospholipids/physiology
  • Placenta/blood supply
  • Pregnancy
  • Thrombosis/physiopathology


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