The way indigenous children use their time determines the knowledge they acquire. Cultural transmission of traditional ecological knowledge generally occurs outside the school, during labor and play activities. In this article we document and analyze time budgets of children, adolescents, and adults from two Amazonian small-scale indigenous societies: the Kayapó and the Araweté. We describe patterns of time use and differences in children's time budgets based on gender, age, and indigenous group. The children studied rarely went to school; they spent half of their daylight time playing and undertaking subsistence work, although their contribution to household income was extremely low. In communities that lack an effective school system and show a low level of integration into the market, formal education is regarded as a marginal asset and children mostly rely on traditional ecological knowledge as the main form of human capital. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
- Time allocation
- Traditional ecological knowledge