Child Maltreatment and Clinical Outcome in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis in the EU-GEI High Risk Study

Tamar C. Kraan*, Eva Velthorst, Manouk Themmen, Lucia R. Valmaggia, Matthew J. Kempton, Jim Van Os, Bart P.F. Rutten, Filip Smit, Lieuwe De Haan, Mark Van Der Gaag*, Phillip McGuire, Maria Calem, Stefania Tognin, Gemma Modinos, Daniella S. Van Dam, Nadine Burger, Barnaby Nelson, Patrick McGorry, Paul Amminger, Christos PantelisC. Politis, Joanne Goodall, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Stefan Borgwardt, Charlotte Rapp, Sarah Ittig, Erich Studerus, Renata Smieskova, Rodrigo Bressan, Ary Gadelha, Elisa Brietzke, Graccielle Asevedo, Elson Asevedo, Andre Zugman, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Tecelli Domínguez-Martínez, Paula Cristóbal-Narváez, Thomas R. Kwapil, Manel Monsonet-Bardají, Lídia Hinojosa, M Kazes, C Daban, J Bourgin, O Gay, C Mam-Lam-Fook, Marie Odile Krebs, Dorte Nordholm, Lasse Randers, Kristine Krakauer, Tanya Louise Naumann, Louise Birkedal Glenthøj, Merete Nordentoft, Stephan Ruhrmann, Dominika Gebhard, Julia Arnhold, Joachim Klosterkötter, Marc De Hert, Ruud Van Winkel, Gabriele Sachs, I Lasser, B Winklbaur,

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Child maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of mental disorders in adulthood. Whether child maltreatment is specifically associated with psychosis risk in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, or leads to a general vulnerability for overall psychopathology in the UHR stage remains unclear. The present study examines the association between child maltreatment and transition to psychosis and other mental disorders. Methods: The sample consisted of 259 UHR individuals from the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Participants were followed-up for 2 years to assess clinical outcome. Clinical outcome was assessed at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after baseline. Child maltreatment before the age of 17 years was assessed at baseline. Results: Our findings show that a history of emotional abuse was associated with an increased risk for transition to psychosis (OR = 3.78, 95% CI = 1.17 to 12.39, P = -027). Apart from psychosis, a history of physical abuse was associated with depressive disorder (OR = 4.92, 95% CI = 2.12 to 11.39, P = .001), post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.86, P = .023), panic disorder (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.00 to 3.99, P = .048) and social phobia (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.18 to 5.16, P = .016) at follow-up. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that in the UHR stage child maltreatment is a pluripotent risk factor for developing psychosis, depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder, and social phobia in adulthood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)584-592
Number of pages9
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 6 Apr 2018


  • child maltreatment
  • clinical outcome
  • psychosis
  • ultra high risk


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