Characterization of three isoenzymes of rat alcohol dehydrogenase: Tissue distribution and physical and enzymatic properties

Pere JULIÀ, Jaume FARRÉS, Xavier PARÉS

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    Abstract

    Rat tissues contain three different isoenzymes of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) that we have named ADH‐1, ADH‐2 and ADH‐3. ADH‐1 is an anodic isoenzyme present in high amounts in the ocular tissues, stomach and lung. ADH‐2 is also anodic and has been found in all the rat organs examined. ADH‐3 is the group of cathodic ADH forms, mainly present in liver, that has been the subject of the majority of the previous studies on rat ADH. The three isoenzymes have been purified to homogeneity and characterized. All of them have similar physical characteristics: Mr 80 000, with two subunits of Mr 40 000; they contain four atoms of Zn per molecule, and prefer NAD+ as cofactor. Isoelectric points are, however, different: 5.1 for ADH‐1, 5.95–6.3 for ADH‐2 and 8.25–8.4 for ADH‐3. ADH‐3 exhibits a Km for ethanol of 1.4 mM, a broad substrate specificity and is strongly inhibited by pyrazole (Ki= 0.4 μM). ADH‐2 shows substrate specificity toward long‐chain alcohols and aldehydes, cannot be saturated by ethanol and is practically insensitive to pyrazole (Ki= 78.4 mM). ADH‐1 has intermediate properties, with a Km for ethanol of 340 mM, a broad substrate specificity and Ki for pyrazole of 0.56 mM. Rat ADH‐1, ADH‐2 and ADH‐3 exhibit many analogies with human ADH classes II, III and I respectively. The specific localization and kinetic properties of rat ADH isoenzymes suggest that ADH‐1 and ADH‐3 may act as metabolic barriers to external alcohols and aldehydes whereas ADH‐2 may have a function in the metabolism of the endogenous long‐chain alcohols and aldehydes. Copyright © 1987, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)179-189
    JournalEuropean Journal of Biochemistry
    Volume162
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1987

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