Characterization of the ionic profile of the extracellular space of the injured and ischemic Brain: A microdialysis study

Tamara Martínez-Valverde, Angela Sánchez-Guerrero, Marian Vidal-Jorge, Ramon Torné, Lidia Castro, Dario Gandara, Francisca Munar, Maria Antonia Poca, Juan Sahuquillo

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5 Citations (Scopus)


© 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ischemic stroke cause a variable disruption of ionic homeostasis and massive ionic fluxes with subsequent osmotic water movement across the cells that causes edema, brain swelling, and deformation of the damaged tissue. Although cerebral microdialysis (CMD) has been used to study the brain neurochemistry, the ionic profiles of brain interstitial space fluid have rarely been reported in humans. We studied the ionic profile in injured areas of the brain by using CMD. As a control group, we included seven patients who had undergone surgical treatment of posterior fossa lesions, without abnormalities in the supratentorial compartment. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for ion determination. No significant differences were found in the [Na+]o, [K+]o, and [Cl-]o between normal injured brains and controls. The ionic profile of the ischemic core was characterized by very high [K+]o and an increase in [Na+]o, whereas [Cl-]o was linearly related to [Na+]o. In the traumatic core (TC), significantly higher levels of [Na+]o, [Cl-]o, and [K+]o were found. The main finding in the penumbra was a completely normal ionic profile for [Na+]o and [K+]o in 60% of the samples. ICP-MS coupled to ionic assays creates a powerful tool for a better understanding of the complex ionic disturbances that occur after severe TBI and ischemic stroke.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-85
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • brain microdialysis
  • ischemic stroke
  • potassium
  • sodium
  • TBI


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