The skin microbiota interacts with the host immune response to maintain the homeostasis. Changes in the skin microbiota are linked to the onset and the progression of several diseases, including tumors. We characterized the skin surface and dermal microbiota of 11 dogs affected by spontaneous mast cell tumor (MCT), using skin contralateral sites as intra-animal healthy controls. The microbial profile differed between healthy and tumor skin surfaces and dermis, demonstrating that the change in microbiota composition is related to the presence of MCT. The number of observed taxa between MCT and healthy skin surfaces was detected, showing a decrease in number and heterogeneity of taxa over the skin surface of MCT, at both inter- and intra-individual level. Preliminary data on bacterial population of MCT dermis, obtained only on three dogs, demonstrated an intra-individual reduction of taxa number when compared to the skin surface. Taxonomy reveals an increase of Firmicutes phylum and Corynebacteriaceae family in MCT skin surface when compared to the healthy contralateral. In conclusion, we demonstrate that microbial population of skin surface and dermis is related to mast cell tumor. Our study provides the basis for future investigations aiming to better define the interaction between mast cell tumors, microbiota and host immune response.