Channel Estimation and Performance Analysis of One-Bit Massive MIMO Systems

Yongzhi Li, Cheng Tao, Gonzalo Seco-Granados, Amine Mezghani, A. Lee Swindlehurst, Liu Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

306 Citations (Scopus)


© 2017 IEEE. This paper considers channel estimation and system performance for the uplink of a single-cell massive multiple-input multiple-output system. Each receiver antenna of the base station is assumed to be equipped with a pair of one-bit analog-to-digital converters to quantize the real and imaginary part of the received signal. We first propose an approach for channel estimation that is applicable for both flat and frequency-selective fading, based on the Bussgang decomposition that reformulates the nonlinear quantizer as a linear function with identical first- and second-order statistics. The resulting channel estimator outperforms previously proposed approaches across all SNRs. We then derive closed-form expressions for the achievable rate in flat fading channels assuming low SNR and a large number of users for the maximal ratio and zero forcing receivers that takes channel estimation error due to both noise and one-bit quantization into account. The closed-form expressions, in turn, allow us to obtain insight into important system design issues such as optimal resource allocation, maximal sum spectral efficiency, overall energy efficiency, and number of antennas. Numerical results are presented to verify our analytical results and demonstrate the benefit of optimizing system performance accordingly.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7931630
Pages (from-to)4075-4089
JournalIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017


  • Massive MIMO
  • channel estimation
  • large-scale antenna systems
  • one-bit ADCs
  • power allocation


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