© 2019 Elsevier Ltd The aim of this study was to identify biological pathways and proteins differentially expressed in saliva of pigs in two conditions of compromised welfare: an acute stress consisting of restraint with a nose snare and in pigs with lameness which is a highly frequent problem in the swine industry. For this purpose, high-resolution quantitative proteomics based on Tandem Mass Tags labelling was used. Four proteins showed significant differences in the conditions of compromised welfare, namely cornulin, the heat shock protein 27 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), that showed significant increases, whereas immunoglobulin J chain showed a significant decrease. LDH, which was the protein that showed the highest differences, was selected for validation and clinical evaluation as a diagnostic biomarker. Significant changes in this protein were observed between pigs restrained with a nose snare and pigs with lameness compared with healthy pigs when measured with available commercial assays in a larger population of pigs. In conclusion, this study reports that in situations of compromised welfare on farm, such as acute stress and lameness in pigs, there are changes in proteins and metabolic pathways in saliva, and describes a series of proteins that could potentially be used as biomarkers for both short term acute stress and longer term chronic stress of lameness. These biomarkers would have the advantage of being measured in saliva by a noninvasive and not stressful collection sampling procedure.
- TMT analysis