We designed a case-control proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic study comparing the cerebellar and prefrontal regions of a group of 17 ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) medicated children and a group of 17 control children matched for laterality, gender and age. As we had found decreased gray matter volume in the right prefrontal region and the left cerebellar hemisphere in a previous voxel-based morphometry study conducted on an independent ADHD sample, we tested the hypothesis that these regions should show neurometabolite abnormalities. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) was performed with a 1.5 T system; spectral acquisition was performed with a single-voxel technique and a PRESS sequence. Two volumes of interest were selected in the right prefrontal region and the left cerebellar hemisphere. NAA (N-acetylaspartate), Cre (creatine), Cho (choline), MI (myo-inositol) and Glx (glutamate-glutamine) resonance intensities were absolutely quantified. In the left cerebellar hemisphere, ADHD children showed significant decreased MI and NAA absolute concentrations with high effect sizes (p = 0.004, ES = 1.184; p = 0.001, ES = 1.083). The diminished absolute concentration of the NAA could be related to a gray matter volume decrease in the same cerebellar region found in the previous voxel-based morphometry MRI study, while the reduced MI absolute concentration could express a decreased glial density. This is the first proton MR spectroscopic study examining the cerebellum and it provides additional support for the role of cerebellum in the ADHD neurobiology. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.