Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society. Context: Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is an underdiagnosed disorder characterized by deficient production and bioactivity of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) leading to low thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor (TRHR) defects are rare recessive disorders usually associated with incidentally identified CCH and short stature in childhood. Objectives: Clinical and genetic characterization of a consanguineous family of Roma origin with central hypothyroidism and identification of underlying molecular mechanisms. Design: All family members were phenotyped with thyroid hormone profiles, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging, TRH tests, and dynamic tests for other pituitary hormones. Candidate TRH, TRHR, TSHB, and IGSF1 genes were screened for mutations. A mutant TRHR was characterized in vitro and by molecular modeling. Results: A homozygous missense mutation in TRHR (c.392T . C; p.I131T) was identified in an 8-yearold boy with moderate hypothyroidism (TSH: 2.61 mIU/L, Normal: 0.27 to 4.2; free thyroxine: 9.52 pmol/L, Normal: 10.9 to 25.7) who was overweight (body mass index: 20.4 kg/m2, p91) but had normal stature (122 cm;-0.58 standard deviation). His mother, two brothers, and grandmother were heterozygous for the mutation with isolated hyperthyrotropinemia (TSH: 4.3 to 8 mIU/L). The I131T mutation, in TRHR intracellular loop 2, decreases TRH affinity and increases the half-maximal effective concentration for signaling. Modeling of TRHR-Gq complexes predicts that the mutation disrupts the interaction between receptor and a hydrophobic pocket formed by Gq. Conclusions: Aunique missense TRHR defect identified in a consanguineous family is associated with central hypothyroidism in homozygotes and hyperthyrotropinemia in heterozygotes, suggesting compensatory elevation of TSH with reduced biopotency. The I131T mutation decreases TRH binding and TRHR-Gqcoupling andsignaling.