© 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and T cell depletion (TCD) through CD34 + cell selection without the use of post-transplantation immunosuppression are 2 strategies used to reduce nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in older patients after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). To compare the efficacy of the RIC and TCD approaches, we evaluated the outcomes of patients age >50 years with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who underwent allo-HCT from an HLA-matched donor with one of these strategies. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the patients receiving TCD (n = 204) and those receiving RIC (n = 151), except for a higher proportion of unrelated donors (68% versus 40%; P <.001) and a higher comorbidity burden (Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index [HCT-CI] ≥3: 51% versus 38%; P <.001) in the TCD cohort. Analysis of outcomes at 3 years showed a higher chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)/relapse-free survival (CRFS) (51% versus 7%; P <.001), lower incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD (18% versus 46% at day +180) and chronic GVHD (6% versus 55% at 3 years; P <.001), and a lower incidence of relapse (19% versus 33% at 3 years; P =.001) in the TCD group compared with the RIC group. Relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and NRM were similar in the 2 groups. Combining transplantation approach (RIC versus TCD) and comorbidity burden (HCT-CI 0-2 versus ≥3), patients with an HCT-CI score of 0-2 seemed to benefit from the TCD approach. In conclusion, in this retrospective study, the use of a CD34 + cell-selected graft and a myeloablative conditioning regimen was associated with higher CRFS and similar RFS and OS compared with unmodified allo-RIC in patients age >50 years with AML and MDS.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- T cell depletion