Carbon dioxide emissions of Antarctic tourism

Ramon Farreny, Jordi Oliver-Solà, Machiel Lamers, Bas Amelung, Xavier Gabarrell, Joan Rieradevall, Martí Boada, Javier Benayas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


The increase of tourism to the Antarctic continent may entail not only local but also global environmental impacts. These latter impacts, which are mainly caused by transport, have been generally ignored. As a result, there is a lack of data on the global impacts of Antarctic tourism in terms of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. This paper presents and applies a methodology for quantifying CO 2 emissions, both for the Antarctic vessel fleet as a whole and per passenger (both per trip and per day). The results indicate that the average tourist trip to Antarctica results in 5.44 t of CO 2 emissions per passenger, or 0.49 t per passenger and day. Approximately 70% of these emissions are attributable to cruising and 30% to flying, which highlights the global environmental relevance of local transport for this type of tourism. © Copyright Antarctic Science Ltd 2011.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)556-566
JournalAntarctic Science
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011


  • climate change
  • environmental impact
  • flight
  • greenhouse gases
  • sustainable tourism
  • vessel


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