The classical Bethe-Bloch formula is not fully applicable to fast ions with Z ≥ 30 due to the assumptions and approximations utilized in its deduction. Several corrections have been introduced in the Bethe-Bloch equation in order to extend the equation applicability to a wider range of ion charges and energies. A computer code that allows calculation of analytical ranges and energy losses of any fast heavy ion passing through any dielectric absorber, has been developed. A study of the behaviour of the different corrections introduced in the Bethe-Bloch formula has been performed using this code. Range results calculated with the program have been compared with experimental measurements of ranges of several ions with Z ≥ 30 of kinetic energy about 1 GeV/amu using etched track detectors exposed at the Berkeley Bevalac. It was found that discrepancies between the measured and our calculated ranges are of the order of 8%, whereas if the classical Bethe-Bloch expression is used these discrepancies are about 12%.
|Journal||Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 1996|