14 children, aged between 15 months and 14 years, with brucellosis were treated with oral rifampicin only (20 mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks. Laboratory diagnosis depended on blood culture (positive for Brucella melitensis in 11 of the cases), serum agglutination, complement-fixation test, and Coombs's test. Response was good in each child, with fever clearing between the 2nd and 8th day. 2 children relapsed, but one relapse was probably a reinfection from contaminated cheese. Both children were given a further course of treatment (rifampicin and co-trimoxazole) which was successful. Despite the reasonably good results with rifampicin alone, it is advisable to combine the drug with co-trimoxazole when treating brucellosis.