© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogen which is found in a wide variety of common foods and beverages. The black aspergilli are distributed worldwide and are regarded as common food spoilage fungi. These fungi are one of the more difficult groups concerning classification and identification. New molecular approaches have shown that there is a high biodiversity, but that species are occasionally difficult to recognize based solely on their phenotypic characters. Only few species have been confirmed to be OTA producers in this group and fewer are known to contaminate foods with this mycotoxin as a natural occurring contaminant. In this paper, the OTA-producing species included in the Aspergillus section Nigri and the foods that they are able to contaminate are reviewed in depth.