Immunologic complications after lung transplantation (LT) include acute cellular rejection (ACR), antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), and most forms of chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD). ACR is an inflammatory process in which the reaction is mediated by the T-cell population. Most episodes of ACR fully recover with treatment, but repeated bouts are considered to be a risk factor for CAD. Biomarker cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-15, IL-6, CCL5, CCR2 and IFNγ may play significant roles in this complication. Formerly bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) or chronic rejection or most forms of CAD were considered to be immunologic complications not amenable therapeutic measures. CAD, the main limitation for long-term survival in LT, is characterized histologically by airway epithelial cell apoptosis and luminal fibrosis in the respiratory bronchioles causing airflow obstruction and, in some cases, lung parenchymal affectations causing restrictive lung disease. Several biomarkers have been studied in CAD, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IL-23, IL-13, IFN γ, and TGF β cytokines, pH, bile acid, and tripsine of gastroesophageal reflux and toll-like receptors of innate immunity. Herein we have reviewed the literature of biomarkers involved in lung rejection. © 2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Nov 2013|