Biomarker analysis beyond angiogenesis: RAS/RAF mutation status, tumour sidedness, and second-line ramucirumab efficacy in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma from RAISE-a global phase III study

T. Yoshino, D. C. Portnoy, R. Obermannová, G. Bodoky, J. Prausová, R. Garcia-Carbonero, T. Ciuleanu, P. García-Alfonso, A. L. Cohn, E. Van Cutsem, K. Yamazaki, S. Lonardi, K. Muro, T. W. Kim, K. Yamaguchi, A. Grothey, J. O'Connor, J. Taieb, S. R. Wijayawardana, R. R. HozakF. Nasroulah, J. Tabernero

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Abstract

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. Background:: Second-line treatment with ramucirumabþFOLFIRI improved overall survival (OS) versus placeboþFOLFIRI for patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) [hazard ratio (HR)¼0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.98, P ¼ 0.022]. Post hoc analyses of RAISE patient data examined the association of RAS/RAF mutation status and the anatomical location of the primary CRC tumour (left versus right) with efficacy parameters. Patients and methods: Patient tumour tissue was classified as BRAF mutant, KRAS/NRAS (RAS) mutant, or RAS/BRAF wild-type. Left-CRC was defined as the splenic flexure, descending and sigmoid colon, and rectum; right-CRC included transverse, ascending colon, and cecum. Results: RAS/RAF mutation status was available for 85% of patients (912/1072) and primary tumour location was known for 94.4% of patients (1012/1072). A favourable and comparable ramucirumab treatment effect was observed for patients with RAS mutations (OS HR ¼ 0.86, 95% CI 0.71-1.04) and patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumours (OS HR ¼ 0.86, 95% CI 0.64-1.14). Among the 41 patients with BRAF-mutated tumours, the ramucirumab benefit was more notable (OS HR ¼ 0.54, 95% CI 0.25-1.13), although, as with the other genetic sub-group analyses, differences were not statistically significant. Progression-free survival (PFS) data followed the same trend. Treatment-by-mutation status interaction tests (OS P ¼ 0.523, PFS P ¼ 0.655) indicated that the ramucirumab benefit was not statistically different among the mutation sub-groups, although the small sample size of the BRAF group limited the analysis. Addition of ramucirumab to FOLFIRI improved left-CRC median OS by 2.5 month over placebo (HR ¼ 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97); median OS for ramucirumab-treated patients with right-CRC was 1.1 month over placebo (HR ¼ 0.97, 95% CI 0.75-1.26). The treatment-by-sub-group interaction was not statistically significant for tumour sidedness (P ¼ 0.276). Conclusions: In the RAISE study, the addition of ramucirumab to FOLFIRI improved patient outcomes, regardless of RAS/RAF mutation status, and tumour sidedness. Ramucirumab treatment provided a numerically substantial benefit in BRAF-mutated tumours, although the P-values were not statistically significant.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-131
JournalAnnals of Oncology
Volume30
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Keywords

  • BRAF
  • Colorectal carcinoma
  • KRAS
  • Left
  • NRAS
  • Ramucirumab

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