Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the glycine transporter-1 ligand 11C-GSK931145 determined from primate and human whole-body PET

Santiago Bullich, Mark Slifstein, Jan Passchier, N. Venkatesha Murthy, Lawrence S. Kegeles, Jong Hoon Kim, Xiaoyan Xu, Roger N. Gunn, Raul Herance, Juan Domingo Gispert, Antonio Gutiérrez, Magí Farré, Marc Laruelle, Ana M. Catafau

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14 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: 11C-GSK931145 is a novel radioligand suitable for imaging the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) in brain. In the present study, human dosimetry is estimated from baboon and human biodistribution data. Procedures: Three baboons and eight healthy human volunteers underwent whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Human dosimetry was estimated using three different region-of-interest (ROI) delineation methods that ranged in their complexity and execution time: ROIs drawn on anterior-posterior compressed PET images, on subsamples of the organs, and covering the whole-organ. Residence times for each organ were calculated as the area under the time-activity curves divided by the injected activity. Radiation dose estimates were calculated from organ residence times using the OLINDA/EXM software package. Results: The overall distribution of activity was similar in baboons and humans. Early scans presented high activity in the liver, and moderate activity in the lungs and kidneys. The principal route of clearance was intestinal and no urinary excretion was observed. The limiting organ with the highest radiation-absorbed dose was the liver. The mean effective dose in humans was 4.02 μSv/MBq (male phantom) and 4.95 μSv/MBq (female phantom) (ROIs drawn on subsamples of the organs). The human effective dose estimated from baboon data was ~15% larger than the effective dose estimated from human data. Conclusion: Human PET imaging of the glycine transporter-1 with 11C-GSK931145 results in a moderate effective human radiation dose, which allows for multiple PET examinations in the same individual. Among the three methods compared to delineate ROIs, the organ subsampling method shows the best balance between quantitative accuracy and practical application. © Academy of Molecular Imaging and Society for Molecular Imaging, 2010.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)776-784
JournalMolecular Imaging and Biology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2011


  • 11 C-GSK931145
  • Biodistribution
  • Glycine transporter-1
  • PET
  • Radiation dosimetry


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