Degradation of the sulfonamide sulfamethazine (SMZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was assessed. Elimination was achieved to nearly undetectable levels after 20h in liquid medium when SMZ was added at 9mgL -1. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase-mediators resulted in almost complete removal. On the other hand, inhibition of SMZ degradation was observed when piperonilbutoxide, a cytochrome P450-inhibitor, was added to the fungal cultures. UPLC-QqTOF-MS analysis allowed the identification and confirmation of 4 different SMZ degradation intermediates produced by fungal cultures or purified laccase: desulfo-SMZ, N 4-formyl-SMZ, N 4-hydroxy-SMZ and desamino-SMZ; nonetheless SMZ mineralization was not demonstrated with the isotopically labeled sulfamethazine-phenyl- 13C 6 after 7days. Inoculation of T. versicolor to sterilized sewage sludge in solid-phase systems showed complete elimination of SMZ and also of other sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole) at real environmental concentrations, making this fungus an interesting candidate for further remediation research. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
|Journal||Science of the Total Environment|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Nov 2011|
- Degradation metabolites
- Sewage sludge
- Trametes versicolor
- UPLC-QqTOF-MS analysis