The effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatment and the ability for survival, repair, and growth of three human pathogenic serotypes (O:1, O:3, O:8) of Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated in washed-curd model cheese made with pasteurized bovine milk. Samples were treated at 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 10 min at 20°C and analyzed at 0, 1, 7, and 15 days to assess the viability of the Yersinia population. A long-term study (up to 60 days of ripening after high hydrostatic pressure treatment) was also undertaken. Treatments at 400 and 500 MPa caused maximum lethality, and only the treatment at 300 MPa showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between serotypes; the most baroresistant was O:3. Ability to repair and grow was not observed after 15 days of storage at 8°C. Yersinia counts in untreated cheese samples also decreased below the detection limit at day 45 in the long-term study. These results suggest that the cheese environment did not allow recovery of injured cells or growth. A primary contributing factor to this effect seemed to be the low pH resulting from the production of lactic acid during cheese ripening.