BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the impact of bariatric surgery (BS) on reproductive outcomes in the general population and specifically in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or the effect of different BS techniques.
PURPOSE: The study aims to investigate the impact of BS on fertility, pregnancy, and newborn outcomes in reproductive age women who have undergone BS and the outcomes according to surgical procedure and PCOS diagnosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study performed in women from 18-39 years undergoing BS in our centre from January 2005 to December 2010. We performed a telephone interview including a structured reproductive health survey on fertility, pregnancy, and offspring outcomes before and after BS.
RESULTS: Of the women, 872 underwent BS during the study period, 298 were 18-39 years old, and reproductive data was obtained from 217. Women with regular menstrual cycles increased from 52.9% before BS to 72.9% 1 year after surgery. The percentage of patients with a time-to-pregnancy longer than 12 months was higher after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) (17.8%) compared to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (7.1%; p = 0.02). Menstrual regularity was less frequent in PCOS (n = 43) (26.0%) compared to non-PCOS women before BS (60.1%; p = 0.01), with no differences after surgery. Several perinatal results showed an improvement after BS, with a reduction in macrosomia rate and birth weight.
CONCLUSION: BS was associated with an improvement in several reproductive outcomes. Menstrual regularity was especially improved in PCOS women. Further research may clarify the impact of LSG on fertility.