Balancing the risks of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation: A twig scale analysis in declining Scots pine

Yann Salmon*, José M. Torres-Ruiz, Rafael Poyatos, Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Patrick Meir, Hervé Cochard, Maurizio Mencuccini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Understanding physiological processes involved in drought-induced mortality is important for predicting the future of forests and for modelling the carbon and water cycles. Recent research has highlighted the variable risks of carbon starvation and hydraulic failure in drought-exposed trees. However, little is known about the specific responses of leaves and supporting twigs, despite their critical role in balancing carbon acquisition and water loss. Comparing healthy (non-defoliated) and unhealthy (defoliated) Scots pine at the same site, we measured the physiological variables involved in regulating carbon and water resources. Defoliated trees showed different responses to summer drought compared with non-defoliated trees. Defoliated trees maintained gas exchange while non-defoliated trees reduced photosynthesis and transpiration during the drought period. At the branch scale, very few differences were observed in non-structural carbohydrate concentrations between health classes. However, defoliated trees tended to have lower water potentials and smaller hydraulic safety margins. While non-defoliated trees showed a typical response to drought for an isohydric species, the physiology appears to be driven in defoliated trees by the need to maintain carbon resources in twigs. These responses put defoliated trees at higher risk of branch hydraulic failure and help explain the interaction between carbon starvation and hydraulic failure in dying trees. Understanding the physiological responses of leaves to drought is crucial since they are the site of both photosynthesis and transpiration, and hence play key roles in balancing the risks of carbon starvation and hydraulic failure. Co-occurring healthy and unhealthy Scots pines showed different responses to summer drought: while healthy trees showed a typical response to drought for an isohydric species, atypical physiology in unhealthy trees appears to be driven by the need to maintain carbohydrate availability in needles and twigs. These responses put unhealthy trees at higher risk of branch hydraulic failure and help to explain the interaction between carbon-starvation and hydraulic failure in dying trees.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2575-2588
Number of pages14
JournalPlant Cell and Environment
Volume38
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015

Keywords

  • Drought
  • Ecophysiology
  • Leaf gas exchange
  • Mortality
  • NSC
  • Photosynthesis
  • Transpiration
  • Tree

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