Bacterial translocation is currently considered the passage of viable gut flora across the intestinal barrier to extraluminal sites. Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli are the most common translocating bacteria. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth, impairment in permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier, and deficiencies in local host immune defences are the major mechanisms postulated to favour bacterial translocation in cirrhosis. Bacterial translocation is a key step in the pathogenesis of spontaneous bacteraemia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis. Translocation of intestinal bacterial products from viable or non-viable bacteria, such as endotoxin and bacterial DNA, has recently been associated with pathophysiological events, such as activation of the immune system and derangement of the hyperdynamic circulatory status in cirrhosis. Clinical consequences of these effects of bacterial products are presently under investigation. © 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
|Journal||European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2005|
- Bacterial translocation
- Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis