We propose a model for a mechanism leading to a threshold in the protonmotive force for the rotation of the motor of bacterial flagella. Such a model is based on a finite relaxation time of some intermediate molecular configurations, which leads to a nonlinear motor torque for small values of angular velocity. © 1986 Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd.
Jou, D., Perez-Garcia, C., & Llebot, J. E. (1986). Bacterial flagellar rotation as a nonequilibrium phase transition. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 122, 453-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5193(86)80185-0