Averaging einstein's equations: The linearized case

William R. Stoeger, Amina Helmi, Diego F. Torres

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)


    We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology -for weak-field and perturbed FLRW situations. In particular, we demonstrate that it yields quantities which are approximately tensorial in these situations, and that its application to an exact FLRW metric yields another FLRW metric, to first-order in integrals over the local coordinates. Finally, we indicate some important limits of any linearized averaging procedure with respect to cosmological perturbations which are the result of averages over large amplitude small and intermediate scale inhomogeneities, and show our averaging procedure can be approximately implemented by that of Zotov and Stoeger in these cases. © World Scientific Publishing Company.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1001-1026
    JournalInternational Journal of Modern Physics D
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2007


    • Averaging
    • Einstein equations
    • Gravity
    • Perturbations


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