Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants—ASIA—related to biomaterials: analysis of 45 cases and comprehensive review of the literature

Jaume Alijotas-Reig, Enrique Esteve-Valverde, Natalia Gil-Aliberas, Victor Garcia-Gimenez

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31 Citations (Scopus)


© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Systemic autoimmune or granulomatous disorders related to biomaterials of human use have rarely been described. The aim of this study was to report cases of autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) related to biomaterial injections and prostheses, mainly silicone, hyaluronic acid, acrylamides and methacrylate compounds in a Spanish patient cohort. This study is a retrospective analysis of clinical, laboratory, histopathological and follow-up data of 45 cases of patients suffering from late-onset, non-infectious inflammatory/autoimmune disorders related to bioimplants. Late onset was defined as 3 months or more post injection. Data were obtained through a further non-systematic but comprehensive review of the literature. Forty-five cases of late-onset adverse reactions related to biomaterial injections or prostheses were reviewed. All cases had systemic complaints that could be categorised as ASIA. In all but four patients, inflammatory features at the implantation site preceded distant or systemic manifestations. Abnormal blood tests were common. Localised inflammatory nodules and panniculitis in 40/45 (88.88%) evolved into a variety of disorders, viz., primary biliary cirrhosis, Sjögren’s syndrome, sarcoidosis, human adjuvant disease, vasculitis, inflammatory bowel syndrome and inflammatory polyradiculopathy. Five (11.11%) cases presented primarily with systemic autoimmune disorders. Biomaterials and prostheses can provoke late-onset systemic autoimmune disorders fulfilling ASIA criteria, or present primarily local/regional inflammatory reactions that may eventually evolve into systemic autoimmune and/or granulomatous disorders which fall under ASIA.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-140
JournalImmunologic Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018


  • ASIA
  • Adjuvant
  • Adverse reactions
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Bioimplants
  • Dermal fillers
  • Granulomatosis


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