© Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Objectives Positive autoantibody (AAB) titres are commonly encountered in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and in a proportion of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) patients. The underlying mechanism for selective AAB occurrence in DILI is unknown, but could be associated with variations in immune-Associated genes. Hence, we aimed to analyse human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele compositions in DILI with positive (+) and negative (-) AAB titres and in AIH patients. Methods High-resolution genotyping of HLA class I (A, B, C) and II (DRB1, DQB1) loci was performed on 207 DILI and 50 idiopathic AIH patients and compared with 885 healthy Spanish controls. Results Compared with controls, HLA-B∗08:01 [44 vs. 9.7%, P=3.7E-13/corrected P-value (Pc) = 1.0E-11], C∗07:01 (46 vs. 24%, P=6.4E-04/Pc = 0.012), DRB1∗03:01 (58 vs. 21.5%, P=5.0E-09/Pc = 1.0E-07) and DQB1∗02:01 (56 vs. 22%, P=6.8E-08/Pc = 9.0E-07) were significantly more frequent in AIH patients. The HLA-A∗01:01 frequency was increased in the same population, but did not reach significance after Bonferroni's correction (34 vs. 19%, P = 0.02/Pc = 0.37). Fifty-eight of 207 DILI patients presented positive titres for at least one AAB (predominantly antinuclear antibody 76% and antismooth muscle antibody 28%). There was a tendency towards higher representation of DRB1∗14:01 and DQB1∗05:03 in DILI AAB+ compared with DILI AAB- (13.8 vs. 4.0%, P = 0.02/Pc = 0.5; 13.8 vs. 4.7%, P = 0.04/Pc = 0.5). Conclusion The presence of HLA alleles B∗08:01, C∗07:01, DRB1∗03:01, DQB1∗02:01 and possibly A∗01:01 enhances the risk of AIH (type 1) in Spanish patients. These alleles form part of the ancestral haplotype 8.1. HLA-DRB1∗14:01 and DQB1∗05:03 could potentially increase the risk of positive AAB (particularly antinuclear antibody) in Spanish DILI patients.
- human immune system
- liver disease
- major histocompatibility complex