© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Background: Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system and can therefore influence public opinion about organ donation and transplantation (ODT). The aim of this work was to analyze the attitude of Spanish veterinary students toward ODT, because they may influence public opinion in the future, and to determine the factors that condition it. Methods: This was a sociologic, interdisciplinary, multicenter, observational study in Spain. The study population was students studying for a veterinary degree in Spain (n = 9000), and a sample of 2815 students (confidence of 99% and precision of ±1%) was stratified by geographic area and academic year. A validated questionnaire of attitude toward ODT (PCID-DTO-Ríos) was self-administered and anonymous. Results: Of the 2815 selected students (2790 plus the 0.9% per type of sample), 2650 completed the questionnaire (response rate, 94.14%): 83% (n = 2207) of the respondents were in favor of donation and 17% against. The following main variables were related to a favorable attitude: being female (odds ratio [OR], 0.752; P =.034); knowing a donor (OR, 1.834; P =.003); having discussed the matter with one's family (OR, 1.587; P =.002); having spoken about the subject in social circles with friends (OR, 1.633; P <.001), and being in favor of donating a deceased family member's organs (OR, 2.403; P <.001). Conclusions: Seventeen percent of Spanish veterinary students were not in favor of ODT. It is important to know the factors that determine their attitude, because this will make it possible to optimize the resources invested in campaigns to promote ODT and to take more specific action.