Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in cocaine-dependent adults: A psychiatric comorbidity analysis

Constanza Daigre, Carlos Roncero, Lara Grau-López, Nieves Martínez-Luna, Gemma Prat, Sergi Valero, Rosa Tejedor, Josep A. Ramos-Quiroga, Miguel Casas

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Background and Objectives Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among drug abusers. We studied the psychiatric comorbidity and characteristics of cocaine use in relation to the presence of ADHD among patients with cocaine dependence. Methods A total of 200 cocaine-dependent patients attending an Outpatient Drug Clinic participated in the study. A systematic evaluation of ADHD (CAADID-II), the severity of addiction (EuropASI) and other axes I and II psychiatric disorders was made (SCID-I and SCID-II). A descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis of the data was performed. Results In the multivariate analysis, the identified risk factors for the development of ADHD were a history of behavioral disorder in childhood (OR: 3.04), a lifetime history of cannabis dependence in the course of life (OR: 2.68), and age at the start of treatment (OR: 1.08). The bivariate analysis showed ADHD to be associated with other factors such as male gender, age at start of cocaine use and dependence, the amount of cocaine consumed weekly, increased occupational alteration, alcohol consumption, general psychological discomfort, depressive disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Conclusions and Scientific Significance We conclude that ADHD is associated with increased psychiatric comorbidity and greater severity of addiction. (Am J Addict 2013;22:466-473) Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)466-473
JournalAmerican Journal on Addictions
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2013


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