Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Disease, and COVID-19 : A Narrative Review

Dolores Álamo-Junquera, Carles Vilaplana-Carnerero, Maria Giner-Soriano, Àngela Dominguez, Rosa Morros, Carles Pericas, Diana Toledo, Carmen Gallego, Ana Redondo, Maria Grau

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory and degenerative process that mainly occurs in large- and medium-sized arteries and is morphologically characterized by asymmetric focal thickenings of the innermost layer of the artery, the intima. This process is the basis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the most common cause of death worldwide. Some studies suggest a bidirectional link between atherosclerosis and the consequent CVD with COVID-19. The aims of this narrative review are (1) to provide an overview of the most recent studies that point out a bidirectional relation between COVID-19 and atherosclerosis and (2) to summarize the impact of cardiovascular drugs on COVID-19 outcomes. A growing body of evidence shows that COVID-19 prognosis in individuals with CVD is worse compared with those without. Moreover, various studies have reported the emergence of newly diagnosed patients with CVD after COVID-19. The most common treatments for CVD may influence COVID-19 outcomes. Thus, their implication in the infection process is briefly discussed in this review. A better understanding of the link among atherosclerosis, CVD, and COVID-19 could proactively identify risk factors and, as a result, develop strategies to improve the prognosis for these patients.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1206
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2023


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Bidirectional link
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cardiovascular disease treatments
  • COVID-19
  • Long COVID


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