Association of Thymidylate Synthase Gene Polymorphisms with Stavudine Triphosphate Intracellular Levels and Lipodystrophy

Pere Domingo, M. Carmen Cabeza, Alain Pruvost, Ferran Torres, Juliana Salazar, M. Del Mar Gutierrez, M. Gracia Mateo, Angels Fontanet, Irene Fernandez, Joan C. Domingo, Francesc Villarroya, Francesc Vidal, Montserrat Baiget

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The antiviral activity and toxicity of stavudine (d4T) depend on its triphosphate metabolite, stavudine triphosphate (d4T-TP). Therefore, modifications in intracellular levels of d4T-TP may change the toxicity profile of stavudine. d4T-TP intracellular levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined with a prominence liquid chromatograph connected to a triple-quadruple mass spectrometer. Polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase (TS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1; SLC19A1), and cyclin D1 (CCND1) genes were determined by direct sequencing using an ABI Prism 3100 genetic analyzer or Fluidigm's Biomark system. The Mann-Whitney test, rank analysis of variance (with Bonferroni's adjusted post hoc comparisons), and logistic regression were used for the inferential analyses. Thirty-three stavudine-treated patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. d4T-TP intracellular levels were 11.50 fmol/106 cells (interquartile range [IQR] = 8.12 to 13.87 fmol/106 cells) in patients with a high-expression TS genotype (2/3G, 3C/3G, and 3G/3G), whereas in those with a low-expression TS genotype (2/2, 2/3C, and 3C/3C), they were 21.40 fmol/106 cells (IQR = 18.90 to 27.0 fmol/106 cells) (P < 0.0001). Polymorphisms in the MTHFR, DHFR, RFC1, and CCND1 genes did not influence the intracellular concentration of d4T-TP. d4T-TP levels were independently associated with the TS genotype (low versus high expression; odds ratio [OR] = 86.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.48 to nonestimable; P = 0.0023). The low-expression TS genotype was associated with the development of HIV/highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lypodystrophy syndrome (HALS) (OR = 14.0; 95% CI = 2.09 to 108.0; P = 0.0032). Our preliminary data show that polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase gene are strongly associated with d4T-TP intracellular levels and with development of HALS. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1428-1435
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2011


Dive into the research topics of 'Association of Thymidylate Synthase Gene Polymorphisms with Stavudine Triphosphate Intracellular Levels and Lipodystrophy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this