Fertility in goats can be improved by natural methods (male effect and feeding) and by assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). The main ARTs are: artificial insemination (AI), multiovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro embryo production (IVEP) and embryo cryopreservation. Nowadays, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is the methodology to carry out reproductive cloning. Hormonal treatment to control and synchronize estrus and ovulation is an essential methodology to implementing the rest of the ARTs. In goats, AI, MOET and IVEP are used to increase goat reproductive efficiency, genetic improvement, transport genetic material and to preserve genetic resources for possible use in the future. Goats have been the principal domestic animal of choice for biomedical research especially for production of recombinant proteins secreted in milk. In recent years several studies have been carried out on transgenesis and cloned goats. However, ARTs need to be applied in healthy individuals to improve reproductive parameters. Poor animal health status, malnutrition and miss-management lie behind a reduction of fertility in spite of the techniques used. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.