Starting in July 2000, treated wastewater of urban origin has been used for the "Serres de Pals" golf course irrigation (Girona, Spain). To evaluate if the soil and the aquifer underneath are affected by the utilization of this type of water, samples have been taken along a period of several months from the wastewater treatment plant, the stabilization lagoon, groundwater and soil profiles. Analyses have been performed for total coliforms and aerobic bacteria, soil water pressure and soil water content as well as chemical analyses of the irrigation water, aquifer and water of the vadose zone. Soil profiles taken at several times during the study indicate the absence of coliforms except for a short period during summer. In the vadose zone an increase of more than 1000 mg kg- 1 of NaO2 in the top 60 cm of soil was observed while Cl- concentration in the aquifer reached up to 1200 mg l- 1 ten months after starting the irrigation. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Soil and aquifer impacts
- Treated wastewater reuse