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Urban green installations are extensively promoted to increase sustainable and accessible food production and simultaneously improve the environmental performance and liveability of city buildings. In addition to the multiple benefits of plant retrofitting, these installations may lead to a consistent increase in biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the urban environment, especially indoors. Accordingly, health concerns could limit the implementation of building-integrated agriculture. In a building-integrated rooftop greenhouse (i-RTG), throughout the whole hydroponic cycle, green bean emissions were dynamically collected in a static enclosure. Four representative BVOCs, α-pinene (monoterpene), β-caryophyllene (sesquiterpene), linalool (oxygenated monoterpene) and cis-3-hexenol (LOX derivate), were investigated in the samples collected from two equivalent sections of a static enclosure, one empty and one occupied by the i-RTG plants, to estimate the volatile emission factor (EF). Throughout the season, extremely variable BVOC levels between 0.04 and 5.36 ppb were found with occasional but not significant (P > 0.05) variations between the two sections. The highest emission rates were observed during plant vegetative development, with EFs equivalent to 78.97, 75.85 and 51.34 ng g −1 h −1 for cis-3-hexenol, α-pinene, and linalool, respectively; at plant maturity, all volatiles were either close to the LLOQ (lowest limit of quantitation) or not detected. Consistent with previous studies significant relationships (r ≥ 0.92; P < 0.05) were individuated within volatiles and temperature and relative humidity of the sections. However, correlations were all negative and were mainly attributed to the relevant effect of the enclosure on the final sampling conditions. Overall, levels found were at least 15 folds lower than the given Risk and LCI values of the EU-LCI protocol for indoor environments, suggesting low BVOC exposure in the i-RTG. Statistical outcomes demonstrated the applicability of the static enclosure technique for fast BVOC emissions survey inside green retrofitted spaces. However, providing high sampling performance over entire BVOCs collection is recommended to reduce sampling error and incorrect estimation of the emissions.

Translated title of the contributionEvaluación de las emisiones de efecto invernadero de la judía verde mediante la técnica de camara cerrada
Original languageEnglish
Article number162319
Number of pages9
JournalScience of the total environment
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2023


  • Air quality
  • BVOCs
  • Building-integrated agriculture (BIA)
  • Hydroponics
  • Phaseolous vulgaris
  • Soilless


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