Ascorbic acid inhibits the increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) susceptibility to oxidation and the proportion of electronegative LDL induced by intense aerobic exercise

José Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Oscar Jorba, Amalia Payés, Carles Otal, Ricard Serra-Grima, Francesc González-Sastre, Jordi Ordóñez-Llanos

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Abstract

Background. We have previously reported the finding of an acute increment in the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation and in the proportion of electronegative LDL [LDL(-)] after intense exercise. We have now studied the effect of oral supplementation with 1 g ascorbic acid, immediately before a 4-h athletic race, on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation, the proportion of LDL(-), and the α-tocopherol and lipid peroxides content in LDL, in order to inhibit such deleterious changes, and to confirm the oxidative nature of modifications of LDL induced by exercise. Methods. We studied seven highly trained runners who received a supplement of 1 g ascorbic acid and a control group of seven who did not receive the supplement. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was assessed by measurement of conjugated dienes after CuSO4-induced oxidation, the proportion of LDL(-) was determined by anion exchange chromatography, α-tocopherol was quantified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and lipid peroxides were measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) method. Results. After exercise, in the control group there was an increase in both the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation (change in lag phase from 51.4 ± 4.7 min to 47.0 ± 4.6 min, P < 0.05) and the proportion of LDL(-) (from 11.1 ± 1.4% to 13.0 ± 2.2%, P < 0.05), but these did not occur in the ascorbic acid group (change in lag phase from 49.7 ± 2.3 min to 50.4 ± 4.2 min, and in LDL(-) from 9.7 ± 1.7% to 10.1 ± 1.7%). No significant changes in the absolute amount of LDL α-tocopherol were observed after exercise (ascorbic acid group: 6.65 ± 0.94 mol/mol apoB before the race, 7.13 ± 0.88 mol/mol apoB after the race; control group: 7.34 ± 0.69 mol/mol apoB before the race, 7.06 ± 0.69 mol/mol apoB after the race), but significant differences were found when increments or decrements of α-tocopherol were tested (α-tocopherol increased 9.9 ± 11.5% in the ascorbic acid group, and decreased 0.6 ± 7.3% in the control group; P < 0.018), TBARS did not change after exercise. Conclusions. We conclude that 1 g ascorbic acid inhibits the increase in LDL susceptibility to oxidation after exercise, preventing this acute pro-atherogenic effect. In addition, the observation that LDL(-) enhancement is prevented by ascorbic acid supports the hypothesis that at least some of the circulating LDL(-) originates from oxidative processes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-255
JournalCoronary Artery Disease
Volume9
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 4 Aug 1998

Keywords

  • Aerobic exercise
  • Antioxidants
  • Electronegative LDL
  • LDL oxidation

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    Sánchez-Quesada, J. L., Jorba, O., Payés, A., Otal, C., Serra-Grima, R., González-Sastre, F., & Ordóñez-Llanos, J. (1998). Ascorbic acid inhibits the increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) susceptibility to oxidation and the proportion of electronegative LDL induced by intense aerobic exercise. Coronary Artery Disease, 9(5), 249-255.