Apoptosis, toll-like, RIG-I-like and NOD-like receptors are pathways jointly induced by diverse respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens

Isidoro Martínez, Juan C. Oliveros, Isabel Cuesta, Jorge de la Barrera, Vicente Ausina, Cristina Casals, Alba de Lorenzo, Ernesto García, Belén García-Fojeda, Junkal Garmendia, Mar González-Nicolau, Alicia Lacoma, Margarita Menéndez, David Moranta, Amelia Nieto, Juan Ortín, Alicia Pérez-González, Cristina Prat, Elisa Ramos-Sevillano, Verónica RegueiroAriel Rodriguez-Frandsen, Dolores Solís, José Yuste, José A. Bengoechea, José A. Melero

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15 Citations (Scopus)


© 2017 Martínez, Oliveros, Cuesta, de la Barrera, Ausina, Casals, de Lorenzo, García, García-Fojeda, Garmendia, González-Nicolau, Lacoma, Menéndez, Moranta, Nieto, Ortín, Pérez-González, Prat, Ramos-Sevillano, Regueiro, Rodriguez-Frandsen, Solís, Yuste, Bengoechea and Melero. Lower respiratory tract infections are among the top five leading causes of human death. Fighting these infections is therefore a world health priority. Searching for induced alterations in host gene expression shared by several relevant respiratory pathogens represents an alternative to identify new targets for wide-range host-oriented therapeutics. With this aim, alveolar macrophages were independently infected with three unrelated bacterial (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two dissimilar viral (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus) respiratory pathogens, all of them highly relevant for human health. Cells were also activated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a prototypical pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Patterns of differentially expressed cellular genes shared by the indicated pathogens were searched by microarray analysis. Most of the commonly up-regulated host genes were related to the innate immune response and/or apoptosis, with Toll-like, RIG-I-like and NOD-like receptors among the top 10 signaling pathways with over-expressed genes. These results identify new potential broad-spectrum targets to fight the important human infections caused by the bacteria and viruses studied here.
Original languageEnglish
Article number276
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Issue numberMAR
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017


  • Bacterial infections
  • Core of up-regulated genes
  • Host response
  • Respiratory pathogens
  • Viral infections


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