Owing to the role of the nuclear phosphoprotein p53 in the regulation of neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental processes, some authors have suggested TP53 as a candidate gene for schizophrenia and/or the neurocognitive deficits commonly observed in these patients. In the present study we have analyzed two polymorphisms (Pro72Arg and 16 bp insertion) located on the TP53 gene in order to investigate their role in the risk of developing schizophrenia and their effect on the neurocognitive profile of these patients in the context of an association study. The distribution of genotypes, alleles and haplotypes did not differ between cases and controls. Additionally, we did not detect any influence of this genetic variability in the neurocognitive functions of schizophrenic patients. Our findings suggest that the analyzed variability of the TP53 gene does not influence (i) the risk of suffering from schizophrenia and (ii) the deficits in the neurocognitive profile of these patients. © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.