Analysis by LC/ESI-MS of iophenoxic acid derivatives and evaluation as markers of oral baits to deliver pharmaceuticals to wildlife

Cristina Ballesteros, Pablo R. Camarero, Carles Cristòfol, Joaquín Vicente, Christian Gortazar, José de la Fuente, Rafael Mateo

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9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Iophenoxic acid and its derivatives (methyl, ethyl, and propyl) are organic chemicals used as markers in baiting campaigns to deliver vaccines, pharmaceuticals, contraceptives or poisons to wildlife. In this study we develop a method of detection of IPA derivatives by LC/ESI-MS (using butyl-IPA as internal standard) obtaining a limit of detection and quantification in wild boar (Sus scrofa) serum of 0.037. μg/ml and 0.123. μg/ml, respectively. The average recovery of IPA derivatives was 88% at levels >0.2. μg/ml, with coefficients of variation <15%. Wild boars in captivity were orally treated with 5. mg/kg b.w. (three adults) or 15. mg/kg b.w (two piglets and three adults) of methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-IPA and the serum levels of these were monitored during 18 months after dosing. Ethyl- and propyl-IPA were detected up to 18 months after a single oral dose in wild boar, especially at 15. mg/kg. Methyl-IPA was detected until 9 months after dosing. Half-lives of methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-IPA were (mean. ±. SD) 41. ±. 5, 183. ±. 85 and 165. ±. 45 days, respectively. One control piglet not exposed to IPA, but housed in the same facility than treated animals showed detectable IPA levels in serum. Piglets born from mothers exposed to marked baits also showed detectable IPA levels in serum. The high persistence of Et- and Pr-IPA must be considered in the field trials, because the presence of the product at low levels in one animal may not reflect a real ingestion of the marked bait. © 2010 Elsevier B.V..
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1997-2002
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume878
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2010

Keywords

  • Disease control
  • Iophenoxic acid
  • Markers
  • Oral vaccination
  • Tuberculosis
  • Wildlife

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